how lift


Well-Known Member
MD88, the laws of physics don't change in ground effect. The ground changes the relative flow, so the air no longer is able to be pushed up towards the wing from below as it approaches, reducing the drag without reducing the lift. Nothing magical going on there.

The other aspect is that the ground prevents the air from being pulled in from the sides, which creates a flow around the wingtip, known as vorticies. These vorticy act to reduce much of the lift (which is why high aspect ratio works, to reduce the % of the wing affected, or winglets, same idea). The ground effect is effectively like increasing the aspect ratio or adding winglets. More lift for the same wing, essentially.


New Member

Thanks for the discussion. Regarding the Carpenter books, I can't find much info other than a price.

How would you rate the level of detail, with 1 being appropriate for an subjective/non-thech type person and 10 being at the level that a wound-up MIT professor would want.

Also, how in-depth is the math (if that's even a significant part of Carpenter's explanations)?



Well-Known Member
Chris Carpenter has a unique writing style that allows someone to get by with virtually no math background at all, yet still shows the mathemetics for those that want it. It is a great combination. Check them out. You'll be interested to know that Royal Post shipping is no more expensive than domestic shipping from the U.S. Amazon site.