Ground Reference Manuevers


New Member
I'm reading the Airplane Flying Handbook here during my PPL training and chapter 6 mentions all the ground reference manuevers. I have done turns around a point, rectangular course, and S-turns so far.

However, the chapter also mentions elementary eights, eights along a road, eights across a road, eights around pylons, and pylon eights.

I assume these remaining manuevers are for commercial training? I can't find anything in my syllabus that mentions these manuevers for PPL training.



Well-Known Member
There was a great artile in Flight Training Magazine about this topic. I cant remember the month. March maybe. Try a search on their website.


Well-Known Member
You will also notice in Chapter 4 on Stalls, they describe Accelerated, Cross-Control, and Elevator Trim Stalls, as well as Spins.

In Chapter 8 on Approaches, they describe the 90, 180, and 360 Power-Off Approach. The Power-Off 180 is the only one on the Commercial and CFI checkride.

My point is that the Airplane Flying Handbook describes a wider variety of training maneuvers than are on the PTS. By training in all the maneuvers listed in the AFH, you will become more proficient so that the PTS maneuvers are only a sampling of your skill.


Well-Known Member
You only have to perform the maneuvers that are required by the PTS.

But, there's nothing saying you can't do other ones. Have your instructor show them to you if you want and learn them.

Chandelles, which are definitely not required until the commercial, are still fun maneuvers to perform.