When in the enroute mode, what is the sensitivity of a GPS needle?
What is the sensitivity of the GPS needle in approach mode?
What is the sensitivity of the GPS needle in approach mode?
From the AIM.n. Flying GPS Approaches
1. Determining which area of the TAA the aircraft will enter when flying a "T" with a TAA must be accomplished using the bearing and distance to the IF(IAF). This is most critical when entering the TAA in the vicinity of the extended runway centerline and determining whether you will be entering the right or left base area. Once inside the TAA, all sectors and stepdowns are based on the bearing and distance to the IAF for that area, which the aircraft should be proceeding direct to at that time, unless on vectors. (See FIG 5-4-3 and FIG 5-4-4.)
2. Pilots should fly the full approach from an Initial Approach Waypoint (IAWP) or feeder fix unless specifically cleared otherwise. Randomly joining an approach at an intermediate fix does not assure terrain clearance.
3. When an approach has been loaded in the flight plan, GPS receivers will give an "arm" annunciation 30 NM straight line distance from the airport/heliport reference point. Pilots should arm the approach mode at this time, if it has not already been armed (some receivers arm automatically). Without arming, the receiver will not change from en route CDI and RAIM sensitivity of ±5 NM either side of centerline to ±1 NM terminal sensitivity. Where the IAWP is inside this 30 mile point, a CDI sensitivity change will occur once the approach mode is armed and the aircraft is inside 30 NM. Where the IAWP is beyond 30 NM from the airport/heliport reference point, CDI sensitivity will not change until the aircraft is within 30 miles of the airport/heliport reference point even if the approach is armed earlier. Feeder route obstacle clearance is predicated on the receiver being in terminal (±1 NM) CDI sensitivity and RAIM within 30 NM of the airport/heliport reference point, therefore, the receiver should always be armed (if required) not later than the 30 NM annunciation.
4. The pilot must be aware of what bank angle/turn rate the particular receiver uses to compute turn anticipation, and whether wind and airspeed are included in the receiver's calculations. This information should be in the receiver operating manual. Over or under banking the turn onto the final approach course may significantly delay getting on course and may result in high descent rates to achieve the next segment altitude.
5. When within 2 NM of the FAWP with the approach mode armed, the approach mode will switch to active, which results in RAIM changing to approach sensitivity and a change in CDI sensitivity. Beginning 2 NM prior to the FAWP, the full scale CDI sensitivity will smoothly change from ±1 NM to ±0.3 NM at the FAWP. As sensitivity changes from ±1 NM to ±0.3 NM approaching the FAWP, with the CDI not centered, the corresponding increase in CDI displacement may give the impression that the aircraft is moving further away from the intended course even though it is on an acceptable intercept heading. Referencing the digital track displacement information (cross track error), if it is available in the approach mode, may help the pilot remain position oriented in this situation. Being established on the final approach course prior to the beginning of the sensitivity change at 2 NM will help prevent problems in interpreting the CDI display during ramp down. Therefore, requesting or accepting vectors which will cause the aircraft to intercept the final approach course within 2 NM of the FAWP is not recommended.
6. When receiving vectors to final, most receiver operating manuals suggest placing the receiver in the nonsequencing mode on the FAWP and manually setting the course. This provides an extended final approach course in cases where the aircraft is vectored onto the final approach course outside of any existing segment which is aligned with the runway. Assigned altitudes must be maintained until established on a published segment of the approach. Required altitudes at waypoints outside the FAWP or stepdown fixes must be considered. Calculating the distance to the FAWP may be required in order to descend at the proper location.
7. Overriding an automatically selected sensitivity during an approach will cancel the approach mode annunciation. If the approach mode is not armed by 2 NM prior to the FAWP, the approach mode will not become active at 2 NM prior to the FAWP, and the equipment will flag. In these conditions, the RAIM and CDI sensitivity will not ramp down, and the pilot should not descend to MDA, but fly to the MAWP and execute a missed approach. The approach active annunciator and/or the receiver should be checked to ensure the approach mode is active prior to the FAWP.
8. Do not attempt to fly an approach unless the procedure is contained in the current, on-board navigation database and identified as "GPS" on the approach chart. The navigation database may contain information about nonoverlay approach procedures that is intended to be used to enhance position orientation, generally by providing a map, while flying these approaches using conventional NAVAIDs. This approach information should not be confused with a GPS overlay approach (see the receiver operating manual, AFM, or AFM Supplement for details on how to identify these procedures in the navigation database). Flying point to point on the approach does not assure compliance with the published approach procedure. The proper RAIM sensitivity will not be available and the CDI sensitivity will not automatically change to ±0.3 NM. Manually setting CDI sensitivity does not automatically change the RAIM sensitivity on some receivers. Some existing nonprecision approach procedures cannot be coded for use with GPS and will not be available as overlays.
9. Pilots should pay particular attention to the exact operation of their GPS receivers for performing holding patterns and in the case of overlay approaches, operations such as procedure turns. These procedures may require manual intervention by the pilot to stop the sequencing of waypoints by the receiver and to resume automatic GPS navigation sequencing once the maneuver is complete. The same waypoint may appear in the route of flight more than once consecutively (e.g., IAWP, FAWP, MAHWP on a procedure turn). Care must be exercised to ensure that the receiver is sequenced to the appropriate waypoint for the segment of the procedure being flown, especially if one or more fly-overs are skipped (e.g., FAWP rather than IAWP if the procedure turn is not flown). The pilot may have to sequence past one or more fly-overs of the same waypoint in order to start GPS automatic sequencing at the proper place in the sequence of waypoints.
10. Incorrect inputs into the GPS receiver are especially critical during approaches. In some cases, an incorrect entry can cause the receiver to leave the approach mode.
11. A fix on an overlay approach identified by a DME fix will not be in the waypoint sequence on the GPS receiver unless there is a published name assigned to it. When a name is assigned, the along track to the waypoint may be zero rather than the DME stated on the approach chart. The pilot should be alert for this on any overlay procedure where the original approach used DME.
12. If a visual descent point (VDP) is published, it will not be included in the sequence of waypoints. Pilots are expected to use normal piloting techniques for beginning the visual descent, such as ATD.
13. Unnamed stepdown fixes in the final approach segment will not be coded in the waypoint sequence of the aircraft's navigation database and must be identified using ATD. Stepdown fixes in the final approach segment of RNAV (GPS) approaches are being named, in addition to being identified by ATD. However, since most GPS avionics do not accommodate waypoints between the FAF and MAP, even when the waypoint is named, the waypoints for these stepdown fixes may not appear in the sequence of waypoints in the navigation database. Pilots must continue to identify these stepdown fixes using ATD.
not entirely correctno, i was wrong it is rnp 2.0 enroute, 1.0 term, and .3 approach.
En route, full-scale Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) deflection is typically 5 miles with an accuracy of +/- 2 miles. Within 30 miles of the arrival and departure airport, GPS CDI sensitivity typically transitions to one mile. When flying an approach (and the approach mode is armed), GPS CDI sensitivity transitions from 1 mile to 0.3 miles approximately 2 miles from the FAWP