CFI Oral


New Member
Any tips on the F.O.I portions? My instructor provided me with some mneumics for the F.O.I. I'll share a few:

[Characteristics of Learning]
P - Purposeful
E - Experience
M - Multifaceted
A - Active

[Laws of Learning]
R - Readiness
E - Exercise
E - Effect
P - Primacy
I - Intensity
R - Recency

[Levels of Learning]
R - Rote
U - Understand
A - Association
C - Correlation

[Factors Affecting Perceptions]
B - Basic Needs
E - Element of Threat
T - Time and Opportunity
G - Goals and Values
P - Physical Being
S - Self Concept

[Defense Mechanisms]
C - Compensation
P - Projection
R - Rationalization
D - Denial of Reality
R - Reaction Formation
A - Aggression
R - Resignation
F - Flight

R - Repression
I - Interference
D - Disuse
I knew alot of those when I did my CFI oral, unfortunately not one of them was asked. Alot of the FOI stuff is pretty generic and obvious. My DE hit professionalism pretty hard and we spent about an hour on that topic alone.
heres some add ons-

for defense should rearrange your last 3. instead of a. r. f. do.......
F light
A ggression
R esignation....either way, but we do know the far's

as far as professionals:

CFI Professional

I mproved self
S ervice
A ppearance
L anguage
A cceptance of student
D emeanor
S afety practices


Characteristics of good test

C omprehensive
U sable
R eliable
V alid
D iscriminitory

Oral questions to avoid

B ewildering
I rrelevent
T oss up
C atch
O versize
P uzzle

Critiques as Instructor

F lexible
A cceptable
T houghtful

C omprehensive

C onstructive
O bjective
W ell Organized
S pecific

I have more, but too tired, pm me if you want...
Has anyone recently taken the CFI checkride and share their info on the oral (FOI related)?
The FOI section of my ride was about 20 min. The examiner wanted to see that I could apply the FOI concepts. I had to define what a good critique is and be able to recognize the levels of learning. And I was asked what I would do in different scenarios - student frustrated, scared to land, etc. Look at professionalism, I believe that is a required task in the PTS.
I took my initial CFI ride at the Detroit FSDO and the inspector didn't ask me much. We talked about some common sense items regarding the law of primacy and that's about it. He was the one inspector/examiner I've run into that actually fit the "if you did well on the written, the oral will be easier" cliche. I got 100 on the FOI written and he didn't seem to think we needed to cover much.

On my CFII ride, I was with a DE, and even though he didn't have to ask me an FOI questions per the PTS, he did anyway and we covered the law of primacy.

So, it looks like the FAA is big on the importance of teaching things right the first time...

I was surprised we didn't cover any more than that, but I wasn't going to complain!

Also, my examiner wanted to see me applying the FOI principles throughout the checkride. Use the building block method when you're presenting your ground lesson, explain it right the first time (primacy), recognize the level of learning that you're teaching at and the level your student is achieving, devleop a good critique, etc.
I learned this one recently at an accelerated school: G.A.S.

it stands for "give a [expletive deleted]"... we were told that if you do that.. all of the other acronyms will come naturally....
I took my initial CFI ride at the Detroit FSDO and the inspector didn't ask me much. We talked about some common sense items regarding the law of primacy and that's about it. He was the one inspector/examiner I've run into that actually fit the "if you did well on the written, the oral will be easier" cliche. I got 100 on the FOI written and he didn't seem to think we needed to cover much.


[/ QUOTE ]

I'm taking mine at the same place. Carol Calahan is the person I will be taking it with
Another good one I used for the Principles of Learning is PIERRE

Principle of Primacy
Principle of Intensity
Principle of Effect
"" Recency
"" Readiness
"" Exercise

F.O.I. Study Guide

(modified 02-08-05 by E.B.)

( Chapter 1 is Paramount to Success – Know all elements by rote and be able to correlate each, using pneumonic devices is O.K. or required by most of us to get it all ) ( Memorize as much as you are able on later chapters and get with your instructor on which are more important for rote knowledge of all elements )

Learning – change in behavior as a result of experience
Characteristics of learning ( PEMA – Like Pima Indians only with an E )
P - Purposeful
E - Result of experience
M - Multifaceted
A – Active process

Principles of Learning
Laws of - PREIRE ( or REEPIR phonetically reaper )

Factor that affect perception
·Perceptions – result when a person gives meaning to sensations
·Self concept – how the person views themselves
·Basic need – to maintain and enhance the organized self
·Time and opportunity – takes time to perceive
·Element of a threat – threats are not conducive to effective learning

Insight – grouping of perceptions into meaningful wholes.

Domains of learning
·Cognitive domain – how we think (knowledge)
·Affective domain – how we feel (value system)
·Psychomotor domain – how we move (physical activities)

Factors involved in learning physical skills(More Than Muscle–MKDEADPPP phonetically - make dead ppp)
·Desire to learn – law of readiness
·Patterns to follow – student learns better with an example
·Perform the skill – practice
·Knowledge of results – student will learn better if outcome is known
·Progress follows a pattern – learning plateau
·Duration and organization of lesson - too much is not productive
·Evaluation vs. critique – which is appropriate?
·Application of skill – can the student use what has been learned

·Sensory register – sorts inputs from stimuli according to a system of predetermined values
·Short term –
·Long term –

Theories of forgetting ( DIR – common DOS Command for directory )
·Disuse – Don't use it – don't remember it
·Interference – when something else that has been learned interferes with remembering whatever
·Repression – unpleasant memories are subconsciously submerged

Transfer of learning (Be able to give good examples of each too)
·Positive transfer – when something previously learned helps to learn a new skill
·Negative transfer – when something previously learned inhibits learning something new

Hierarchy of human needs
1. Physical
2. Safety
3. Social
4. Ego
5. Self-fulfillment

Defense mechanisms
·Flight – they leave, either physically or mentally
·Compensation – they point out things they do well to draw attention away from those they don’t
·Rationalization – cannot accept the real reasons for their behavior
·Projection – project the blame for poor performance onto other people, events, etc
·Denial of reality – ignoring or refusing to deal with reality
·Reaction formation – developing the opposite attitude to what they really feel
·Aggression – getting angry at instructors or whomever
·Resignation – Losing interest and giving up “I’m doomed”

Reactions to stress
·Anxiety – state of mental uneasiness arising from fear – treated as a normal reaction, can be countered by re-enforcing the students enjoyment of flying – actual anxious reactions vary
·Stress – normal individuals will begin to respond rapidly and within the confines of their training and experience. Many automatic reactions.
·Abnormal reactions to stress - may include singing, becoming overly cooperative, laughter at inappropriate times, severe anger.


Elements of communication
·Source – the sender transmitter or instructor
·Symbols used in composing the message – simple oral and visual codes (facial gestures, vocabulary) – combined into sentences, paragraphs that convey meaning to the student
·Receiver – the listener, reader, or the student

Barriers to effective communication
·Lack of common experience – words are used as a means to arouse stimuli in the student. Student learns by comparing what instructor is saying with his own past experience.
·Confusion between the symbol and the symbolized object – When a word is confused with what it is meant to represent. Mechanic is a vague term that means different things to different people, aviation maintenance technician is much more specific and conveys better the idea begin presented.
·Abstractions – Aircraft is a term that could mean helicopters, airplanes, or a blimp. By saying that this (whatever) applies to aircraft we are being too vague in our definition. When an instructor says engine a student may picture a turbine when the instructor is trying to put for a piston engine.
·Interference – made up of outside factors that affective communication
·Physiological interference – any biological problem i.e. hearing loss, blindness that inhibits communication
·Environmental – any environmental factor i.e. loudness, heat, and cold
·Psychological – a product of how the instructor and student feel at the time

Proper listening requires that the student/instructor
·Take notes
·Guard against daydreaming
·Be emotionally calm
·Listen for main ideas
·Listen to understand, not refute
·Be responsible for listening
·Be ready to listen


Four steps in the teaching process are
·Preparation – outline performance based objectives that apply to what you are trying to teach
·Performance based objects – elements are
·Description of skill or behavior – desired out of training stated in concrete terms
·Conditions – framework under which the skill or behavior will be demonstrated
·Criteria – Standard that will be used to evaluate the accomplishment of the objective
·Presentation – The method that we will use to present the material – lecture, guided discussion, demonstration-performance method.
·Application – Where the student uses what the instructor has presented. Student may be asked to plan a trip after a lecture on XC planning.
·Review and Evaluation – Instructor uses this time to review and evaluate/critique the students performance of things previously learned. In creating a summary of where the student is and what they have learned student should be kept motivated.

Proper organization of material
Three elements of proper organization are
·Introduction – sets the stage for that which is to come, has three subcomponents –
·Attention – Must focus the students attention and keep it, specify the benefits to be learned by learning this new material.
·Motivation – Establishing a receptive attitude towards the lesson and creating a smooth transition into the lesson
·Overview – Indicate what is to be learned and relate information to overall course.
·Development – The main part of the lesson, instructor develops the lesson material in a manner that is appropriate to the setting (i.e. lecture, guided discussion). Outline of information presented should be
·From Past to Present – have a logical subject development sequence
·Simple to complex – start with the easiest things first
·Known to unknown – by using something the student already knows as a point of departure the instructor can lead into new concepts
·Most frequently used to least frequently used – that which is used more should be taught first
·Conclusion – An effective conclusion retraces the important elements of the lesson and relates them to the objective, this reinforces student learning and improves retention of what has been learned.

Lecture method
·Lecture method is the most efficient method of teaching, used for introduction of new material, summarizing ideas and showing relationships. Several types of lectures
·Illustrated talk – where the speaker relies heavily on visual aids to present ideas
·Briefing – speaker presents a concise array of facts to the listeners who do not expect supporting material
·Formal lecture – speakers purpose is to inform, persuade, or to entertain with little or no participation from the class.
·Informal lecture – instructor plans and delivers and oral presentation in a manner that allows some student participation and helps direct them towards the desired learning outcomes.

Teaching Lecture
·Preparation of the teaching lecture
·Establishing the objective and the desired outcomes
·Researching the subject
·Organizing the material
·Planning productive classroom activities
·Suitable Language – should use the simple rather than the complex when possible. Avoid the use of colloquialisms and bad grammar and/or slang terminology. If subject matter includes technical terms define them clearly and at the start.
·Types of delivery – four different types of delivery:
·Reading from a typed or written manuscript
·Reciting memorized material with the aid of a manuscript
·Speaking extemporaneously from an outline
·Speaking impromptu without preparation
·Use of Notes – if thoroughly prepared then the use of notes may not be required however notes are useful as an outline in order to ensure that all is covered, keeps the lecture on track. If walking about the room put notes on cards or outline on board.
·Formal vs. Informal Lecture – Since learning is an active process, the use of the informal lecture is required. Student retention of subject material will be increased if the student is allowed to participate in the learning.
·Advantages and Disadvantages of the lecture – lectures can present large amounts of material in a relatively short amount of time making them the most efficient teaching method. They are particularly good at introducing new material or for explaining background information. The disadvantages are that lectures tend to foster the students dependence on the instructor and since they are not always active learning, the students may not learn as much as they might were they allowed to participate. Motor skills or similar things cannot be effectively taught in a lecture environment.

Guided Discussion Method
Use of questions in a guided discussion
·Guided discussion is a method of presentation in which the instructor does not tell the students new information, but instead spends the time letting students provide ideas and telling him what the know. From this he can direct the conversation so as to achieve the desired learning objectives. There are several types of questions that are important to the guided discussion, they are:
·Lead off question – Generally lead off questions are questions that start with why or how. Their purpose is to get the discussion going.
·Follow-up question – used to guide the discussion, may ask the student to explain something more thoroughly or want to go over something previously discussed
·Overhead question – directed to the group as a whole to stimulate thought and response from everyone
·Rhetorical question – directed to the group as a whole but answered but the instructor. Used to make the students think about an idea but not necessarily to make them answer.
·Direct question – a question that is directed at a particular student.
·Reverse question – when the instructor answers the students question with another question.
·Relay question – when the instructor relays a student question to the group as a whole, like a reverse question except directed to the group rather than the individual.

Characteristics of an effective question
·Have a specific purpose
·Be clear in meaning
·Contain a single idea
·Stimulate thought
·Require definite answers
·Relate to previously covered information

Planning a guided discussion
·Steps are the same as in the preparation for a lecture
·Introduction – just like a lecture should contain attention, motivation and overview elements
·Discussion – open the discussion by asking a lead off question and direct the discussion until the desired objectives have been met.
·Conclusion – Summarized the material that was covered, tie together all the various points or topics and show the relationships between them.

Demonstration-Performance method (Know this well. Key concept, frequently evaluated.)
Has five steps:
·Explanation – the instructor explains what is to be done and how it relates to the whole.
·Demonstration – the instructor will provide a demonstration of the skill so the student knows the outcome
·Student Performance
·Instructor Supervision – In this step the student attempts to duplicate the instructor’s performance while being evaluated by the instructor. The instructor will stop the student and suggest changes as necessary to ensure that proper habit formations are created.
·Evaluation – The instructor judges student performance based on the previously assigned criteria.

·Critiques should be oral, written or both. They should come immediately after a students performance while the details of the performance are easy to recall. It may be conducted in private before the entire class. A critique is not a step in the grading process, it is a step in the learning process. A good critique considers the good along with the bad.

Characteristics of an Effective Critique
·Objective – the critique should be based on student performance vs. an objective standard. The instructors opinion of the student should not factor into the critique
·Flexible – The critique needs to examine the entire performance in the context of which it was accomplished.
·Acceptable – Before the students will accept their instructors critiques, they must first accept the instructor.
·Comprehensive – A comprehensive critique is not necessarily a long one, nor must it treat every aspect in detail. An instructor must decide if the student will benefit from the discussion of a few key points or a number of minor ones.
·Constructive – A critique is pointless unless a student benefits from it. Praise things that are done well but do not give meaningless praise.
·Organized - Unless a critique follows some organizational format, otherwise valid comments may lose some of their impact.
·Thoughtful – An effective critique reflects the instructors thoughtfulness toward the students need for self-esteem, recognition and approval from others.
·Specific – The instructors comments and recommendations should be specific, rather than general, the students needs to focus on something concrete.

Methods of critique
·Instructor/Student Critique – Instructor leads a group discussion in which members of the class are invited to offer criticism of a performance.
·Student-led Critique – The instructor asks a student to lead the critique. The instructor may specify a pattern of organization for the student to follow.
·Small Group Critique – The class is divided into small groups and each group is given a specific area to analyze.
·Individual Student Critique by another student – The instructor may require another student to present the entire critique.
·Self Critique – A student is required to critique personal performance.
·Written Critique – They have three advantages – first more time and thought may be devoted to the critique in this manner. Secondly the students can keep written critiques are review them as they wish. Thirdly students are left with a permanent record of suggestions for improving performance.

Rules for critiques
·Do not extend the critique beyond its scheduled time
·Avoid trying to cover too much
·Allow time for a summary of the critique
·Avoid dogmatic or absolute statements
·Avoid controversies with the class
·Never allow yourself to be maneuvered into defending criticism
·If part of the critique is written be sure that it is consistent with the oral portion

There are three main methods used to evaluate students:
·Oral Quizzes – reveals the effectiveness of the instructors training procedures, checks student retention of what has been learned, reviews material already covered by the student.
·Written Tests - classic written test
·Performance Tests – perform a maneuver

Types of Questions to avoid
·Puzzle – questions that confuse the student
·Oversize – questions that do not require specific answers
·Toss-up – where the answer is a toss up
·Bewilderment – that bewilder the student
·Trick Questions – which try to trick the student into answering the wrong question

Answering Student Questions
·Be absolutely sure that you completely understand the question before any attempt is made to answer.
·If you do not know, say so and help the student find the answer.

Written Tests
·Test – a set of questions, problems, or exercises for determining whether a personal has a particular knowledge or skill.
·Test item – measures a single objective and calls for a single response.

Characteristics of a good test
·Reliability – The test yields consistent results.
·Usability – The functionality of the tests. Is the font big enough to read etc.
·Validity – The test measures what it is supposed to measure and no more.
·Objectivity – The same test given by someone else would yield the same score.
·Comprehensiveness – The test liberally samples the overall objectives.
·Discrimination – The test can distinguish between those who are prepared and those who are not.

Test Development
·Norm-referenced testing – measures student performance against the performance of other students.
·Criterion-referenced testing – measures student performance against an objective standard. Preferable for most activities.

Test Development Steps
·Determine Level of learning objectives – what is it that we expect the students to know
·List indicators/samples of desired behavior – What will give us the best indication that the student has achieved the desired level-of-learning objectives
·Establish Criterion (performance based) objectives – The criteria under which the desired behavior is to be performed.
·Develop criterion referenced test items – Develop appropriate questions to what you are trying to measure.

Written Test Items
·Supply type – Where the student must supply all the information, i.e. essay questions
·Selection type – Where the student must select the correct response

Parts of a question (selection type)
·Distracters – incorrect answers
·Stem – the part that contains the question

Different types of tests
·True False
·Multiple Choice

Practical test standards
·The purpose of the practical test standards is to delineate the standards by which FAA inspectors and DPE’s conduct tests for ratings and certificates.

·Training Media – any physical means that communicates an instructional message to students
·Devices that assist an instructor in the teaching-learning process. Not self supporting

Guidelines for use of instructional aids
·Support the lesson objective
·Be student centered
·Build on previous learning
·Contain useful and meaningful content that is consistent with sound principles of learning
·Appeal to student
·Maintain the students attention and interest
·Encourage student participation, when appropriate
·Lead students in the direction of the behavior or learning outcomes specified in the learning objective
·Provide proper stimuli and reinforcement
·Contain quality photos, graphs and texts as required
·Be checked prior to use for completeness and technical accuracy
·Contain appropriate terminology for the student
·Be properly sequenced
·Be easy to understand
·Include appropriate safety precautions

Types of Instructional Aids
·Chalk or marker board
·Supplement print material - books
·Enhanced training materials – training syllabi etc
·Projected material – Movies, slides etc
·Interactive Video
·CBI Multimedia

Models – copy of a real object
Cut-away – model that is meant to be taken apart to show the inner workings
Mock-up – three dimensional working model

Responsibilities for all Aviation Instructors
·Helping students learn – make learning fun, enjoyable, interesting experience
·Providing adequate instruction – make sure that instruction given suits the student so that they might learn the most from you
·Demanding adequate standards of performance – instructors fail to provide competent instruction when they permit their students to get by with substandard instruction
·Emphasizing the positive – The way instructors conduct themselves, the attitudes that they display, and the manner in which they develop their instruction all contribute to the formation of either positive or negative impressions by their students.

Flight Instructor Responsibilities
·Evaluation of student piloting ability – evaluation must be based on objective standards on performance, suitably modified to relate to the students level of experience.
·Pilot supervision – Flight instructors have a responsibility to their students to provide guidance and restraint with respect to the solo operations of their students.
·Practical Test Recommendations – A flight instructor who makes a practical test recommendation for an applicant seeking a certificate or rating should require the applicant to thoroughly demonstrate the knowledge and skill level required for that certificate or rating.
·Flight Instructor endorsements – Instructors have a responsibility to endorse their students and maintain a record of those endorsements for 3 years.
·Additional training and endorsements – Aside from primary training there are other endorsements (high performance, tailwheel, complex, pressurized, flight reviews) that the flight instructor may give. These also must be documented.
·Pilot proficiency – Flight instructors should instill in their students a desire to always be proficient at what they do. Programs like the WINGS program further help to maintain this proficiency.

What is professionalism? (Know the answers to this question well, frequently evaluated.)
·Professionalism exists only when a Service is performed for the common good
·Only after Extended training and preparation
·True professionalism is based on Study and research
·Professionals must be able to Reason logically and accurately
·Professionalism requires good Judgement
·Professionalism requires a Code of ethics

Other factors affecting professionalism
·Sincerity – The instructor should be straightforward and honest
·Acceptance of the student – The instructor must accept the students as who they are, including all of their faults
·Personal appearance – The instructor should be neat, clean, and appropriately dressed
·Demeanor – The instructor should avoid erratic movements, distracting speech habits, and capricious changes in mood.
·Safety and accident prevention – The safety practices emphasized by instructors have a long lasting effect on students.
·Proper Language – The use of profane and/or obscene language leads to distrust or a complete lack of confidence in the instructor
·Self-Improvement – Professional instructors must never become satisfied or complacent with their own qualifications and abilities. They should be constantly alert for ways to improve.

Minimizing Student Frustrations
·Motivate Students
·Keep students informed
·Approach students as individuals
·Give credit when due
·Criticize constructively
·Be consistent
·Admit errors

The Telling and Doing Technique – similar to the demonstration-performance model except that now the student assumes the role of the teacher and explains the maneuver in one part of the teaching process.
·Preparation – accomplished prior to the lesson with a discussion of lesson objectives and completion standards.
·Instructor Tells-Instructor Does – In this step the instructor first explains what is to be done and then provides an adequate example.
·Student Tells-Instructor Does – In this step the instructor and the student switch roles and the student explains the maneuver and the instructor does it. In doing so the instructor can see if the student really understands the maneuver.
·Student Tells-Student Does – This step again requires the student to describe the maneuver but now the student will attempt the maneuver himself.
·Student Does-Instructor Evaluates – The instructor will now review and evaluate (step four of teaching process) what has been learned and compare the students performance to the objectives in the lesson plan.

Integrated Flight Instruction (Key concept, almost always evaluated. Know what it is and why well)
·This is where the student learns from the beginning to perform maneuvers by reference not only to the outside, but to the instruments as well. For this to be effective the indications to be seen on the instruments must be introduced with each new maneuver. This method of flight instruction also lends itself to teaching the importance of the following procedures to the student:

· Development of habit patterns --
o The continuing observance and reliance upon flight instruments is essential for efficient, safe flight operations.
· Accuracy of flight control --
o Students trained in this integrated method are much more precise in flight maneuvers than those not trained under this method.
· Operating Efficiency --
o As student pilots become more proficient in monitoring and correcting their own flight technique by reference to flight instruments the performance obtained from an airplane increases notably.
· Procedures --
o Each new flight maneuver should be introduced using both outside and instrument references. Students develop the ability to maneuver the airplane equally well by reference to the instruments or outside.
· Precautions –
o The instructor must insure that the student does not become overly focused on the instruments, to the point of not looking for traffic. The student needs to be aware that their attention needs to be focus both inside and outside of the cockpit.

Obstacles to learning during flight instruction
·Feelings on unfair treatment
·Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations
·Worry or lack of interest
·Physical Discomfort, illness and fatigue
·Apathy due to inadequate instruction

Use of Distractions
Distractions should be used to ensure that the student can divert his attention between flying the airplane and other problems or issues that may arise while flying. Some examples of distractions might be
·Drop a pencil, ask the student to pick it up
·Ask the student to determine a heading to an airport
·Ask the student to reset the clock
·Ask the student to compute TAS
·Ask the student to get something from the back seat

Aeronautical Decision Making
ADM is a systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.

Pilot Error – Mistake on the pilot’s behalf
Poor judgement chain – “error chain” string of events leading to an accident/incident.

IMSAFE Checklist (Memorize this FAA version, from A.I.M. Chapter 7)
I – Illness
M – Medications
S – Stress
A – Alcohol
F – Fatigue
E – Eating

Recognition of hazardous attitudes
There are five attitudes that a pilot may posses that are hazardous to flying. They are:
·Anti-Authority – “Don’t tell me what to do” Antidote – Follow the rules, they are usually right.
·Macho – “I’m a badass, ill show them what a real pilots flies like”. Antidote – Taking chances in foolish.
·Impulsivity – “Must do something right now”. Antidote – Not so fast. Think first.
·Resignation – “I’m doomed”. Antidote – I’m not helpless, my actions make a difference
·Invulnerability “It wont happen to me”. Antidote – it could happen to me.

Types of Stress
·Physical Stress – generally environmental – temperature, noise, lack of oxygen etc
·Physiological Stress – Physical conditions – lack of blood sugar, fatigue etc
·Psychological Stress – Social or emotional factors – death in family divorce etc

Situational Awareness – the accurate perception of the operational and environmental factors that affect the pilot, aircraft and passengers during a specific period of time.

·Course of training – a complete series of studies leading to attainment of a specific goal.
·Curriculum – a set of courses in an area of specialization offered by an educational institution.
·Training Syllabus – a step by step building block progression of learning with provisions for regular review and evaluations at prescribed stages of learning.
·Training course outline (within a cirriculum) – the content of a particular course.

Blocks of learning – more complex tasks that are broken down into their component pieces in order to simplify the learning processes. These component pieces are referred to as blocks.

Training Syllabus
·The format and content may vary but it should always be in the form of an abstract or digest of the course of training.
·Any practical training syllabus must be flexible, and should be used primarily as a guide.
·A syllabus should include special emphasis items that have been determined to cause factor in aircraft accidents or incidents.
·A syllabus lesson may also include several other items that add to or clarify the objective, content, or standards. A lesson may specify the recommended class time, reference or study materials, recommended sequence of training and study assignment for the next lesson.

Lesson Plans – an organized outline for a single instructional period. They insure that each student receives the best possible instruction under the existing conditions. An adequate lesson plan should
·Assure a wise selection of material and the elimination of unimportant details
·Make certain that due consideration is given to each part of the lesson.
·Aid the instructor in presenting the material in a suitable sequence for efficient learning.
·Provide an outline of the teaching procedure to be used.
·Serve as a means of relating the lesson to the objectives of the course of training
·Give the inexperienced instructor confidence.
·Promote uniformity of instruction regardless of the instructor or the date on which the lesson is given.

Characteristics of a well planned lesson
·Unity – each lesson should be a unified segment of instruction.
·Content – Each lesson should contain new material. New material should be related to the old material.
·Scope – each lesson should be reasonable in scope.
·Practicality – Each lesson should be planned in terms of the conditions under which the training is to be conducted.
·Flexibility – A lesson plan should be flexible to accommodate student experience.
·Relation to a course of training – each lesson should be taught so that the relationship of the main points to the course objectives are clear.
·Instructional steps – every lesson should fall into the four steps of the teaching process.

Aviation Safety Counselors – members of the aviation community who are selected by the Safety Program Manager. Pilots who devote their time and energy into solving the aviation safety problems of their community.

Continuing Education – All instructors should continually seek to improve their abilities and knowledge, here are some possible sources:
·Government – FAA AC’s, WINGS program etc
·Educational/Training institutions – Safety seminars etc
·Commercial Enterprises – Commercially published books, videos etc
·Industry Organizations – AOPA etc