Canadian citizenship by descent
From 15 February 1977 to 17 April 2009, any person born outside Canada to a Canadian parent was automatically a Canadian citizen by descent
. If the Canadian parent or parents were also born outside Canada and obtained their citizenship by descent, the child had to apply to maintain citizenship by his or her 28th birthday, or else lose it. On 17 April 2009, Bill C-37 restricted citizenship by descent to children of parents who were themselves born in Canada or obtained citizenship through naturalization.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference">
</sup><sup id="cite_ref-FAQ_4-0" class="reference">
</sup> Those who were citizens by descent on the date the law came into effect retain their citizenship, with no need to apply to maintain it.<sup id="cite_ref-BillC37PR_2-1" class="reference">
</sup> Under the new law, the second and subsequent generations born abroad can only gain Canadian citizenship by immigrating to Canada; this can be done by their Canadian citizen parents sponsoring them as dependent children, a category with fewer requirements, which would also take less time than most other immigration application categories.